Research report


The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) provides substantial support for working families with low and moderate incomes, including those who may participate in traditional safety net programs, such as TANF. Based on incomes in 2019, the Tax Policy Center...

February 26, 2021
Elaine MaagWilliam J. CongdonEunice Yau
Research report

The universal earned income tax credit is a worker subsidy designed to offset wage stagnation. The base proposal would replace existing subsidies for working families with a refundable 100 percent tax credit on individual wages up to $10,000 and a larger, refundable child tax credit. The maximum...

January 21, 2021
Leonard E. Burman
Research report

States saw steep declines in revenues in the second quarter of 2020, though some of this was caused by shifting revenues into the next quarter and next fiscal year. Consequently, most states ended fiscal year 2020 uncertain about their fiscal bottom line.  Many states cut...

December 24, 2020
Lucy Dadayan
Research report

This report presents updated figures in 2020 dollars for the lifetime benefits earned and the lifetime taxes paid by hypothetical workers participating in Social Security and Medicare. For a single male earning average wages every year and retiring in 2020 at age 65, lifetime Social Security and...

November 17, 2020
Erald KolasiC. Eugene Steuerle
Research report

This paper examines the fiscal system put in place in the former Confederacy in the decades after Reconstruction. Overturning Reconstruction-era policies that taxed wealth and invested in public services, the white supremacist governments that came to power in the later 19th Century slashed...

November 4, 2020
Vanessa Williamson
Research report

To raise revenue in a progressive, efficient, and administrable manner, this chapter proposes a new national consumption tax: a broad-based credit-invoice value-added tax (VAT). Th e proposal comes with several qualifications: the VAT should complement, not substitute for, new direct taxes on...

September 30, 2020
William G. Gale
Research report

State government tax revenues showed year-over-year growth at 4.2 percent in the first quarter of 2020. However, preliminary data indicate double-digit declines in state government tax revenues in the second quarter of 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic and...

August 25, 2020
Lucy Dadayan
Research report

This report describes the Tax Policy Center’s (TPC’s) improved methodology for analyzing the taxation of pass-through income (income generated through business activities that is taxed at the individual level). Under current law, certain types of pass-through income are taxed at different rates...

August 19, 2020
Benjamin R. PageJeffrey RohalyThornton Matheson
Research report

This paper describes the updated methodology that the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center (TPC) uses to estimate the benefits taxpayers receive from proposals that allow them to save through a qualified retirement savings plan. We present tables comparing how we currently measure these benefits...

August 7, 2020
Eric ToderSurachai Khitatrakun
Research report

The earned income tax credit (EITC) and child tax credit (CTC) provide substantial benefits to working families with children. The EITC also provides modest benefits to workers without custodial children, often called “childless workers” for tax purposes. Together, the credits lift almost 9...

July 23, 2020
Elaine MaagRobert McClellandC. Eugene Steuerle